Tax in Thailand (Tax Rates 2024)

Kristian Ole Roerbye

The Kingdom of Thailand operates under a comprehensive taxation framework encompassing various tax categories, including personal income tax, corporate tax, and value-added tax (VAT), among others. As a foreign national in Thailand, it is essential to grasp the specifics of these taxes, their applicability, and the obligations they entail.

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Understanding the Thai tax system can be challenging, particularly for those unfamiliar with the Thai language. However, with the right information and understanding, compliance with tax laws can be straightforward and manageable. This guide serves as a crucial resource, offering clarity and detailed insights into each aspect of tax in Thailand.


  • Understand your tax residency status in Thailand to determine your tax liabilities.
  • Accurately report all taxable income, including global income if a tax resident.
  • Utilize available personal allowances and deductions to minimize tax obligations.
  • Be aware of Double Taxation Agreements between Thailand and your home country.
  • Ensure compliance by keeping accurate records and meeting filing deadlines.
  • Consult with tax professionals for complex tax situations and optimization.
  • Regularly access reliable sources for updates on Thai tax regulations.

Tax Rates and Brackets

Income Bracket (THB)Tax Rate (%)
0 – 150,0000
150,001 – 300,0005%
300,001 – 500,00010%
500,001 – 750,00015%
750,001 – 1,000,00020%
1,000,001 – 2,000,00025%
2,000,001 – 5,000,00030%
Over 5,000,00035%

Types of Taxes in Thailand

Personal Income Tax

Definition and Applicability to Foreigners

In Thailand, Personal Income Tax (PIT) is levied on an individual’s income, with specific considerations for foreign nationals. Expatriates are subject to PIT on income earned within Thailand, and in certain cases, on income earned abroad. The applicability of PIT to a foreign resident hinges on their duration of stay in Thailand and the source of their income.

Tax Rates and Brackets

Income Bracket (THB)Tax Rate (%)
0 – 150,0000
150,001 – 300,0005%
300,001 – 500,00010%
500,001 – 750,00015%
750,001 – 1,000,00020%
1,000,001 – 2,000,00025%
2,000,001 – 5,000,00030%
Over 5,000,00035%

Thailand’s personal income tax system adopts a progressive rate structure. This means that the tax rate increases as the taxable income increases. The rates range from 0% to 35%, segmented into several income brackets. It is crucial for foreigners to understand which bracket their income falls into, to accurately compute their tax liability.

Corporate Tax

Overview for Business Owners and Investors

Corporate Tax is a significant consideration for foreigners who own businesses or hold investments in Thai companies. The Corporate Income Tax (CIT) rate in Thailand is typically fixed but can vary depending on the type and size of the business. This tax is levied on a company’s profits, and understanding the applicable rates and regulations is essential for compliance and financial planning.

Value Added Tax (VAT)

Explanation and Impact on Daily Purchases

Value Added Tax, or VAT, is a consumption tax placed on goods and services in Thailand. It is a part of everyday transactions and affects most purchases made in the country. Foreigners living in Thailand will encounter VAT regularly, and it’s important to understand how it is applied and its implications on the cost of living and expenses.

Other Taxes

Property Tax, Stamp Duty, etc.

Apart from the primary tax categories, there are other taxes like Property Tax, levied on real estate ownership, and Stamp Duty, imposed on certain legal documents. While these may not affect all foreigners, property owners or those engaged in specific transactions will need to be aware of these taxes and their rates.

Tax Residency and Its Implications

tax in thailand

Criteria for Tax Residency in Thailand

Understanding the concept of tax residency is crucial for foreigners in Thailand, as it significantly influences tax obligations. In Thailand, an individual is considered a tax resident if they reside in the country for 180 days or more in a calendar year. This residency status determines the extent to which their income is taxable in Thailand.

It is important for foreigners to keep track of their days spent in the country to accurately determine their residency status for tax purposes. Those who meet the residency criteria are taxed on their global income — that is, income earned both within and outside of Thailand. Conversely, non-residents are only taxed on the income earned within Thailand.

How Tax Residency Affects Tax Obligations

The implications of being a tax resident extend beyond the scope of income subject to taxation. As a tax resident, one is required to comply with the full spectrum of tax regulations, including the declaration of worldwide income and adherence to the applicable tax rates and brackets.

Foreigners who are not tax residents, however, are only responsible for the income they earn in Thailand. It is essential for non-residents to understand the specific taxation rules that apply to their income type, as different rates and exemptions may be applicable.

How to File Tax in Thailand

Step-by-Step Guide on Tax Filing Process

Preparing to File

Filing taxes in Thailand requires thorough preparation. The first step is to gather all necessary documents, which typically include proof of income (such as pay slips), tax deduction receipts, and identification documents. Foreigners should also prepare any documentation related to foreign income if they are tax residents.

Completing the Tax Return

The tax return form, known as PND 90 or PND 91 (depending on the type of income), is used to declare income and claim deductions. It is imperative to fill out this form accurately to ensure compliance. The form can be obtained from the Revenue Department or downloaded from their official website.

Submission of the Tax Return

Once the tax return form is completed, it can be submitted either online through the Thai Revenue Department’s e-filing system or in person at a local tax office. Online filing is generally more convenient and is increasingly becoming the preferred method.

Documentation Required for Tax Filing

Foreigners must have their passport, work permit (if applicable), and tax identification number ready when filing taxes. Additional documents, such as income statements and receipts for deductions, must also be prepared. It’s crucial to keep these documents organized and easily accessible for a smoother filing process.

Deadlines and Penalties for Late Filing

The deadline for tax filing in Thailand is typically March 31st of the year following the tax year. Late filings are subject to penalties, including fines and interest on the unpaid tax. It’s essential to adhere to these deadlines to avoid unnecessary charges and legal complications.

Tax Exemptions and Deductions

Overview of Available Exemptions and Deductions

Understanding tax exemptions and deductions is crucial for foreigners in Thailand, as these can significantly reduce tax liability. The Thai tax system provides various exemptions and deductions that taxpayers can leverage, depending on their circumstances.

Personal Allowances

Basic Personal Allowance: Every taxpayer is entitled to a basic personal allowance, which reduces the taxable income.

Allowances for Dependents: Additional allowances are available for dependents, such as children and spouses, subject to certain conditions.

Deductions for Expenses

1. Expenses related to employment, health insurance, and contributions to social security can be deducted from taxable income.

2. Contributions to retirement funds and charitable donations also qualify for deductions, within specified limits.

Specific Conditions Under Which They Apply

Criteria for Eligibility

1. Each exemption and deduction has specific eligibility criteria. For instance, the allowance for children is applicable only if the children are under a certain age and financially dependent on the taxpayer.

2. Deductions for health insurance or retirement contributions are subject to caps and must be in compliance with Thai regulations.

Documentation and Proof

1. Taxpayers must provide adequate documentation to claim these exemptions and deductions. This includes receipts, certificates, and other relevant records.

2. It is important to maintain proper documentation, as the Revenue Department may require proof during the tax filing process or in case of an audit.

Double Taxation Agreements

Explanation of Double Taxation Agreements

Double Taxation Agreements (DTAs) are treaties between two countries that aim to prevent the same income from being taxed twice. These agreements are particularly relevant for foreigners living in Thailand who may have income sources or assets in other countries. Thailand has entered into DTAs with numerous countries, providing clarity and tax relief for international taxpayers.

DTAs typically outline the taxing rights between the two countries on different types of income such as employment income, business profits, and investment returns. They help determine which country has the right to tax a particular income and to what extent, thereby avoiding double taxation.

List of Countries with Agreements with Thailand

Thailand has established DTAs with many countries across the globe, including major economies and several neighboring nations. These agreements often vary in terms of specifics, so it’s crucial for foreigners to understand the details of the DTA between Thailand and their home country or other countries where they have financial interests.

Impact on Foreigners in Thailand

Tax Credits and Exemptions

1. Under DTAs, taxpayers may be eligible for tax credits in their country of residence for taxes paid in the foreign country. This can significantly reduce the overall tax liability.

2. In some cases, certain types of income may be exempt from tax in one of the countries, or taxed at a reduced rate, as per the terms of the agreement.

Navigating DTA Provisions

1. It is essential for foreigners to be aware of the specific provisions of the DTA between Thailand and their country of origin. This includes understanding which types of income are covered and how tax credits or exemptions can be claimed.

2. Consulting with a tax professional who has expertise in DTAs is often beneficial to ensure accurate application of these agreements.

Seeking Professional Help

When to Consider Professional Tax Advice

Navigating the complexities of Thailand’s tax system, especially for foreigners, can be a daunting task. While basic tax compliance might be straightforward, certain situations warrant the expertise of a tax professional. These include:

Complex Financial Situations: If you have multiple income streams, investments in different countries, or own a business, the tax implications can be intricate.

Understanding Double Taxation Agreements: Professionals can provide clarity on DTAs and how they apply to your specific situation.

Tax Planning and Optimization: To ensure you are benefiting from all available deductions, exemptions, and credits.

Legal Compliance: Keeping abreast of changes in tax laws and ensuring full compliance to avoid penalties.

How to Find a Reputable Tax Advisor in Thailand

Research and Referrals

1. Start by seeking referrals from other expatriates or professional networks. Personal recommendations can be invaluable.

2. Research online for reputable firms that specialize in expatriate taxation. Look for reviews or testimonials to gauge their credibility and expertise.

Qualifications and Experience

1. Ensure that the advisor or firm has the necessary qualifications and a good track record. Experience in handling tax matters for foreigners is essential.

2. Verify if they are registered with relevant professional bodies or authorities in Thailand.

Language and Communication

1. Choose a professional who is proficient in English or your preferred language to ensure clear communication.

2. An advisor who understands both the Thai tax system and the tax regulations of your home country can be particularly beneficial.

Expectations from a Tax Advisor

Clear Guidance and Strategy

1. A professional tax advisor should provide clear, actionable advice tailored to your specific financial situation.

2. They should assist in strategic planning to optimize your tax position while ensuring compliance.

Ongoing Support and Updates

Tax laws can change, and your financial situation may evolve. A good advisor should keep you informed of relevant changes and advise on necessary adjustments to your tax strategy.

Transparency and Trust

1. Transparency in fees and processes is crucial. Ensure you understand how they charge and what services are included.

2. Building a relationship based on trust is key, as your tax advisor will handle sensitive financial information.

Tax Compliance: Common Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

Navigating the tax system in Thailand can be challenging, especially for foreigners. Awareness of common mistakes and understanding how to avoid them is crucial for ensuring compliance and avoiding penalties.

List of Common Tax Compliance Errors

Misunderstanding Tax Residency

Many foreigners misinterpret the rules regarding tax residency. It’s essential to understand that residing in Thailand for 180 days or more in a calendar year qualifies you as a tax resident, impacting your tax liabilities.

Incorrect or Incomplete Income Reporting

Failing to accurately report all taxable income, including global income for residents, is a common error. This can result in penalties and interest on underpaid taxes.

Missing Deadlines

Overlooking the tax filing deadline, typically March 31st, can lead to fines and interest charges. Keeping track of this date is crucial.

Misapplying Deductions and Exemptions

Incorrectly claiming deductions or exemptions for which you are not eligible can lead to discrepancies in your tax return, triggering audits or penalties.

Tips on Ensuring Compliance with Thai Tax Laws

Stay Informed and Updated

Tax laws and regulations can change. Staying informed about these changes is vital for maintaining compliance. Regularly check updates from the Thai Revenue Department or consult with a tax professional.

Accurate Record-Keeping

Keep meticulous records of your income, tax payments, and relevant expenses. Proper documentation is key in case of an audit or when clarifications are required by the tax authorities.

Understand Your Tax Obligations

Take the time to understand your specific tax obligations in Thailand, whether as a resident or non-resident. If in doubt, seek professional advice.

Utilize Professional Assistance When Necessary

Complex tax situations or significant changes in your financial circumstances may require professional guidance. Do not hesitate to consult a tax advisor to ensure accurate filing and compliance.

Regular Review of Tax Position

Periodically review your tax position, especially if there are significant changes in your income, marital status, or residency status.

Related: Understanding loans in Thailand

Additional Resources

  • Thai Revenue Department
    • Website: The primary source for tax-related information in Thailand is the Revenue Department’s official website. It offers detailed guidelines, forms, and updates on Thai tax laws.
    • Publications: The Revenue Department periodically releases publications and circulars that provide insights into tax regulations and any recent changes.
  • Embassies and Consulates
    • Foreign embassies and consulates in Thailand can be a resource for information, especially regarding how Thai tax laws interact with those of your home country.
  • Online Forums and Expatriate Groups
    • Online platforms and expatriate groups can offer practical advice and share experiences related to tax issues in Thailand. However, ensure to cross-reference this information with official sources for accuracy.
  • Hotline and Customer Service: The Revenue Department operates a hotline and customer service centers for inquiries. These services can be valuable for clarifying specific queries or seeking guidance on tax filing procedures.
  • Local Tax Offices: Local tax offices across Thailand can provide direct assistance and are especially useful for in-person consultations or when submitting documents.
  • Regular Updates
    • Tax laws and regulations can change, and staying updated is crucial. Regularly visiting the Revenue Department’s website or subscribing to their notifications can keep you informed of the latest developments.
  • Language Accessibility
    • While most official information is in Thai, English translations are often available for key documents and guidelines. In cases where translations are not available, seeking assistance from a bilingual professional can be helpful.
  • Professional Publications and News Outlets
    • Professional tax advisors and legal firms often publish articles or newsletters on Thai tax matters. Additionally, local business news outlets can provide insights into tax changes and their implications.

ABOUT Kristian Ole Roerbye

Since moving to Chiang Mai in 2009, Kristian has established deep roots in Thailand, founding two companies and gaining expertise in local real estate. A devoted family man and nature enthusiast, he created Thailand Simple to guide expats and tourists through the beauty and intricacies of Thai life.

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